Bacterial prostatitis - symptoms, treatment, prevention

what is bacterial prostatitis

Prostate inflammation is one of the most common urological problems in men of any age. Bacteria and viruses predominate among the causes of inflammation in the prostate.

What is bacterial prostatitis?

Currently, several forms of bacterial prostatitis are distinguished in the classification:

  • Acute inflammation of the prostate.The main characteristic of the disease is the severity of clinical manifestations and patient complaints, as well as deviations in laboratory tests. But despite the acute form, the prognosis is favorable. In most cases, complete recovery is possible. Of course, only with correct diagnosis and treatment. And with prevention, the disease may no longer remember itself.
  • subacute form.It occurs when, against the background of manifestations of an acute illness, the patient resorts to self-medication or initially does not fully complete the prescribed course of medication. In certain situations, this may be an initially incorrect treatment tactic. As a result, a significant part of the symptoms gradually disappears, but some manifestations (urinary disorders, impaired sexual function, discomfort in the genital area) may persist and cause discomfort. If not taken on time, the disease becomes chronic with frequent exacerbations. Depending on the characteristics of the infection, the initial development of a subacute form of the disease is also possible.
  • Chronic type of disease.Chronic prostatitis is almost always a neglected, untreated, or poorly treated disease. Most of the symptoms constantly bring tangible discomfort. Any unfavorable condition quickly provokes an exacerbation with a deterioration of the condition.

acute bacterial prostatitis

The disease always begins acutely and develops rapidly. Initially, a general temperature reaction occurs, which usually reaches values above 38. 5 degrees. Almost immediately, dysuric disorders occur (frequent and difficult urination in small portions, urgent (sudden) urge to urinate, weakening of the urine stream, and sometimes even complete retention of urination).

A very important symptom is pain in the perineum, in the groin, in the scrotum, in the lower abdomen. If initially the pain accompanies only the process of urination, then after a while it can constantly bother, even at rest. In addition to the manifestations of pain, the patient has decreased sexual desire and impaired erection.

It is with these signs of bacterial prostatitis that the patient turns to a specialist urologist. The doctor orders blood and urine tests, and in most cases this may be enough. In the absence of severe pain, the prostatic discharge can be taken for microscopic examination.

In the acute form of the disease, a characteristic manifestation will be severe pain on digital examination. At the same time, prostate massage is not performed due to the risk of causing the spread of infection.

The urologist makes a diagnosis based on laboratory tests and patient complaints. He then prescribes treatment, which usually includes:

  • Antibiotic therapy with broad-spectrum drugs. If there are data on the sensitivity of microorganisms, it is possible to select more effective antibiotics for the patient.
  • Pain relievers can be prescribed as tablets and as rectal suppositories for topical use. With a strong pain syndrome, they are often combined.
  • Antispasmodics and drugs that improve urine flow.
  • Topical preparations intended to activate resistance mechanisms. One of the most prescribed are those prepared with extract from the tissues of the prostate gland, which stimulate immunity and local resistance, since they contain biologically active organotropic molecules.

This list of therapeutic measures, followed by compliance with medical prescriptions and prevention, guarantee a complete recovery.

Subacute inflammation of the prostate.

The subacute form in the initial stage does not differ from the acute. However, it is formed due to incomplete or interrupted treatment. At the same time, the vigilance of the patient is dulled by the fact that the most acute symptoms disappear, such as fever, which in most cases disappears completely. But other symptoms (dysuric disorders, alterations in the intimate sphere, pain or discomfort in daily life) remain, although with minimal manifestations. Gradually, the patient gets used to not paying attention to them.

A constant slow process gradually turns into a chronic one. Very often, any weakening of the immune system leads to an exacerbation of the process with the development of the clinical picture. The treatment of subacute prostatitis is based on:

  • Antibiotic therapy with mandatory determination of the sensitivity of microorganisms.
  • Analgesics, and more often with a long period of action.
  • Antispasmodics and drugs that improve urine flow. In this case, longer courses are needed, since some of the changes become difficult to reverse.
  • Topical preparations with activation of local immune and organotropic resistance mechanisms. One of the most prescribed are preparations that contain an extract of prostate tissue.

It is extremely important for subacute prostatitis to complete the course of treatment and conscientiously follow all the necessary recommendations. In this case, there is a chance to cure the disease and prevent its transition to a chronic form, which will be impossible to get rid of.

chronic prostatitis

This clinical form of the disease can proceed in different ways. With an exacerbation, the clinical picture becomes similar to an acute form of inflammation of the prostate gland, and outside of the exacerbation, minimally pronounced symptoms are constantly present.

Main signs of bacterial prostatitis in remission:

  • dysuric disorders. In most cases, they are represented by a decrease in the speed of urinary flow in the form of a slow and weakened stream. There is no sensation of complete emptying of the bladder. The frequent need to urinate in small portions, especially at night, is characteristic; this symptom is called nocturia.
  • Violations of the intimate sphere. In this case, there is discomfort during intercourse, and pain during ejaculation can also be observed. An important sign of the disease is a decrease in the quality of the erection, as well as a decrease in the ability to conceive, up to complete infertility.
  • Chronic pain syndrome. It is constantly present, reducing the quality of a man's life and negatively affecting his activity and ability to work. At the same time, factors such as hypothermia, physical activity, and stress often increase pain.

With an exacerbation of a chronic disease, the treatment of bacterial prostatitis does not differ from the treatment of acute or subacute forms:

  • Antibiotic therapy with mandatory determination of the sensitivity of microorganisms that cause inflammation.
  • Analgesics, and more often with a long period of action.
  • Antispasmodics and drugs that improve urine flow. Long-term intake in sufficiently large doses is often needed, since the existing changes are practically irreversible and permanent. The main task in this case is to reduce the severity of dysuric phenomena.
  • Medications for bacterial prostatitis of local action with organotropic and organoprotective mechanism of resistance. One of the most prescribed drugs are products with an extract from the tissues of the prostate gland.

Adequate prevention of any form of bacterial prostatitis.

At the moment, experts recognize three main preventive areas that help initially reduce the risk of the disease and, in its chronic forms, reduce the frequency of exacerbations and their severity. This is achieved by reducing the influence of risk factors, such as:

  • Stagnation of blood circulation in the tissues of the gland with irregular sexual activity;
  • Frequent change of partners during unprotected sexual intercourse;
  • A prolonged pause in sexual life or excessive and debilitating sexual activity;
  • Sudden mechanical stimulation of the urethra, especially dangerous due to microtraumatization and direct bacterial infection;
  • General and local hypothermia;
  • Low physical activity and predominantly sedentary lifestyle;
  • Physical exhaustion, strenuous physical activity;
  • Traumatization of the genital organs.

Primary preventiondesigned to prevent the onset of disease. Here an important role is given to guaranteeing personal and intimate hygiene, the normalization of physical and sexual activity, avoiding situations of stress and hypothermia of the perineum.

Secondary preventionaimed at the most complete cure of the infectious process. The best result is a complete recovery. The more correctly the treatment is chosen and the more responsible the man is to comply with the doctor's prescriptions, the greater the probability of a full recovery.

Tertiary preventionbacterial prostatitis is necessary in situations where the disease has already acquired a chronic form. Its main objective is to prevent the appearance of exacerbations of the disease.

Not always all of the above preventive measures can provide full protection against exacerbation. Recently, drugs that raise the level of local immunity have appeared and are actively used. This increases the resistance of the prostate tissue. Some of the preparations are of plant origin. These act due to plant analogues of hormonal compounds. However, the degree of effectiveness of these funds is still under investigation and has not been fully tested.

Preparations based on animal tissue extracts have a more substantial evidence base. Organic compounds totally suitable for the human body. Among them, the most commonly prescribed are ovules and ampoules of bovine prostate tissue extract. They have a proven level of clinical efficacy in reducing the risks of negative effects on the prostate. When using these funds, there is an increase in the protective reserves of the gland itself. In addition, resistance increases and the prostate receives the necessary biologically active molecules. In this way, reinforcement is achieved at the "point of least resistance".